Take a look at some of the diesel longblock and complete engines we have built for stock. These are ready to ship same day!
Take a look at some of the diesel longblock and complete engines we have built for stock. These are ready to ship same day!
Leading heavy-duty diesel engine manufacturer, Cummins Inc., is pioneering the use of 3D Printing technology to produce and repair critical engine parts. Unlike many manufacturers in the diesel industry, Cummins has its sights on future technology; recently unveiling the first electric engine for semi-trucks. The company believes that in order to thrive in the 21st century it must innovate new technologies rather than adapt to them. Although, 3D Printing is still in its infancy it is becoming more common place for manufacturers due to the potential cost and time to market savings.
Cummins has partnered with the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop a 3D Printing strategy for the company. The use of 3D printing in automotive parts manufacturing could be huge. Cummins sees the benefits of 3D printing to be 3 fold: making on the fly repairs to worn or damaged engine parts, producing replacement parts as needed and reducing the need for mass production / inventory storage.
Metallic 3D Printing, also known as, additive manufacturing, works by printing microscopic layers of materials one line at a time to create a desired shape. Initially, the use of 3D Printing can be used to fix existing cracks and damage within engine parts. Cummins is testing the technology to repair cylinder heads. Cracked cylinder heads usually are a death sentence for an engine. Current repair techniques by machine shops are limited to removing the crack and cold stitch welding the hole back together with the use of plugs or heating the cylinder head up to around 900 degrees in an oven, making the weld and then waiting days for the head to cool in a sand pit. Cold stitching provides a temporary patch to prolong the life of the head but does not provide a strong bond between the original casting and the weld. Heat and thaw cycles will eventually crack around the weld. Hot welding or plasma arc welding allows for the weld to be made inside of the oven so that both the weld and casting are broken down on a molecular level and cooled together as one fluid structure. However, the process is time consuming and expensive.
With 3D Printing a traditional milling machine will scoop out the damaged section of the cylinder head. Then researchers will use a CAD file to precisely map out the architecture of the damaged part. The CAD File will then be uploaded into the printer using a G-Code so that filler material can be directly deposited into the damaged area without the use of substrate layer or additional welding.
The 3D Printer Cummins uses is called a DM3D Machine from the company of the same name. The DM3D Machine is a direct energy deposition system which uses a 5-axis CNC head. The spray nozzle is laser guided to get an exact location of the damage. Once the damaged area is detected the nozzle sprays atomized metal power right in the crack and the laser melts the powder layer by layer. Sensors monitor the temperature within the repair to avoid unnecessary cracking of the surrounding cast iron. The technique is very defined and offers a more precise bonding structure with the surrounding metal cast than traditional welding. Eventually, the goal with 3D print repairing is to exactly match the existing metal composition to create a seamless or even stronger cast.
Cummins and Oak Ridge are trying to trying to perfect cast iron repair. Cast iron is prone to cracking under heat and stress. So far the researchers have tested a high-density nickel alloy to avoid metal fatigue during the repair and increase the overall thermal efficiently of the diesel engine part. The results look promising as the bonds under microscopic analysis show good adhesion, however the repaired parts have yet to be tested in real world conditions. Over the coming years Cummins plans to test different metal alloy combinations to determine which alloy creates the strongest chemical bonds to the existing cast iron. The true test will be putting the repaired part through intense heating/cooling cycles during normal engine use.
Cummins not only sees a future for 3D printing in its remanufacturing division but also with new parts production. The company predicts a future where each dealer has a 3D printer to print parts in real time as needed. Parts printing would save the company untold amounts of money in mass production of replacement parts as well as storage, shipping and inventory costs. Service departments would have the ability to print replacement parts in a matter of minutes instead of enduring lengthy lead times waiting for shipments. The late 1990s saw the advent of Just-In-Time manufacturing processes, whereas parts would be available at the exact time they are needed in production. 3D Printing would implement just-in-time inventory models from the manufacturer directly to the retail level. Manufacturer and retailer would essentially merge as one unit on some basis.
Roger England, Director of Material Science with Cummins, is optimistic yet cautious about 3D Printing. Mr. England believes the technology is still in its infancy and has a long way to go before it is adopted on larger scale. “I think the additive manufacturing industry right now is a lot like the automotive industry around the turn of the 19th century. When folks had cars back in the 1890s or 1900s, it was common that those people were fairly affluent and they could afford to hire a chauffeur who was also a mechanic that could keep the car running.” Mr. England draw parallels to the current environment surrounding 3D Printing citing it is “very labor intensive to keep it [3D Printing Machinery] running.”
Cummins has complained that 3D Printing Machinery requires a regular stream of software and hardware updates. The technology is going through rapid research and development phases as the manufacturers learn more about how to streamline additive manufacturing. The whole industry is being developed from the ground up and growing pains are commonplace in these early stages. It can be difficult for the end users to learn a new system, adapt to a new interface or upgrade old machinery to accommodate changes in the field.
One of the major hurdles the 3D Printing Industry is learning to overcome is how to develop more robust machinery to meet a continuous workflow. R&D engineers had not anticipated their machinery was going to be used 24 hours a day for months on end. Durability of the internal components currently in place are not rated for a high-output industrial use. Mr. England stated, “The units that we have here are finally getting past the 50 percent uptime availability measure, and that’s after we deduct time for scheduled maintenance. It’s been a big challenge.”
Other issues surrounding 3D Printing of new engine parts is quality control. Currently, a casting made in any number of Cummins’ facilities worldwide will be held to strict production specifications to ensure the parts are exactly the same no matter where they are forged. With 3D Printing each piece of machinery is so customized that no two are exactly alike. Cummins determined that the level of consistency between parts produced on different machinery is still too great for mass production. The company discovered that an engine part produced on one machine will not exactly match the same part produced on another machine even though the brand, make, model, serial number and user inputs were exactly the same. Mr. England stated, “Until we can get it right every time, it’s not something we’re going to engage.”
However, Cummins sees an immediate use of 3D Printing in prototype development. In the R&D division, creating real world prototypes of parts and engines in a matter of hours is a huge plus for the company. Creating new prototypes of parts requires the creation of plastic molds. With 3D Printing Cummins has produced new injection mold tooling to create complicated designs very quickly. For example the creation of complex cooling passages within various engine parts can be built into the plastic mold much quicker than with traditional methods. Mr. England stated, “A lot of times our volumes aren’t great enough to financially justify using injection-molded plastic, because of the cost of amortizing molds. Having [additive] now makes plastic injection molding a viable and cost competitive process for lower volumes.”
In addition to the potential cost savings and shorter lead times, 3D Printing of automotive parts will reduce the environmental impact of manufacturing these parts. Injection-Molded Plastic vs. sand casting aluminum parts reduces the entire carbon footprint through the entire product life-cycle. Currently, engine castings are produced with a consistent metal alloy mixture throughout the part. High-quality material like nickel and chromium are used in mass qualities by Cummins due to their ability to handle high temperatures and pressures. With 3D Printing the ability to only strengthen areas which need higher strength material will cut down on mining costs.
We are living in some exciting times where the limits of technology seem endless. It looks like 3D Printing is on the right track as far as engine parts production goes but time will tell how big an impact on the industry it will have.
There is no standard diesel engine for every application. For example there are industrial applications, truck application, electrical power generation, RV applications, heavy duty emergency, pumps and of course marine applications. Although, each engine is slightly different the core design is the same. The exhaust, cooling, electrical and fuel systems are all different in marine engines. This article will discuss the differences between industrial diesel engines and their marine counterparts.
Diesel engines are popular within the marine community for a number of reasons. Unlike, gas marine engines, for the most part there aren’t many strictly diesel marine engine manufactures on the market. The big companies like Caterpillar, Cummins and Detroit Diesel build industrial diesel engines that are then adapted for the heavy duty marine market. The marine design is based upon millions of other truck or off-road engines on the market. Consequently, Volvo, Yanmar and Perkins all build engines for smaller pleasure craft that work well as drop-in units but do not work well with larger boats.
The common misconception is that industrial engines will not work in marine applications. Industrial diesel engines can be adapted to work in marine craft. For pleasure craft most boats only get roughly 100-300 hours of usage per year. Heavy duty marine applications average usage is 10,000-15,000 hours before overhaul. All marine engines, regardless of application, simply have a shorter expected duty cycle than their industrial counterparts which can often go 500,000 – 1,000,000 miles before major overhaul. The reason for the shorter lifespan is that pleasure craft marine engines will operate at constant high speeds and lower RPMs for a short period of time. If you think about it, speed boats really only travel at high speeds when cruising waterways and open ocean.
Heavy duty marine applications have a similar usage profile as pleasure craft except they operate at full speed for much longer intervals. On the open water there are no stoplights or speed limits. Industrial and truck engines mostly operate at slower speeds and will only go up in RPMs as the transmission briefly shifts 5-6 gears. Marine engines only operate with 1 gear. A common misconception is that a marine engine with low hours is a better engine than one with higher hours. An idle marine engine is prone corrosion and lack of lubrication. Due to the constant use of truck and industrial diesel engines they will often last much longer than their marine brothers.
It is this usage profile that drives the engineering differences between industrial and marine engines. The two main reasons why marine engines are built differently than industrial engines is because of the risk of fire and the corrosion. Marine engines are subjugated to a constant barrage of humidity and exposure to water. This exposure to water (often times salt water) will deteriorate cast iron and steel pretty quickly if not mitigated. Industrial engines usually operate in dry environments, are stored out of the weather and do not have to worry about fuel leakage on ancillary components or on the road.
Starter – The starter on a marine application is coated in an epoxy instead of just regular paint or a bare casting used for an industrial diesel application. The epoxy coating is a rust preventative used instead of aluminum, industrial cast iron or steel material. A marine starter is also sealed at certain points to keep the water out. The casings on a marine starter are spot welded for extra strength to keep from breaking. An automotive or industrial engine, running gasoline and not diesel, can split and allow sparks into the engine bilge.
Alternator – With a marine rated alternator, near the screen there is an additional plate behind the fan. There is also an additional spark arrestor screen on the back. These plates keep a spark from entering the bilge. Engine fires at sea are no joke and every measure to prevent them must be taken.
Distributors – With gasoline powered marine engines the distributor and distributor cap are points of corrosion and fire hazard. The distributor’s job is to route secondary high voltage current to the spark plug so that it may fire in the correct order. This piece of equipment can pose a significant fire hazard and must be upgraded for marine applications. Automotive distributors have an automatic vacuum advance whereas marine distributors do not due to increased risk of a spark. A pressurized vacuum adds stress to the internal components and increases the likelihood of structural failure. Marine distributors contain different internal operating arrangements. The springs are heavier to sustain higher constant RPMs. The points also do not float in marine distributors vs. an automotive or industrial distributor. The spark arrestor vent and distributor caps are also different in marine applications. They are usually made of brass to prevent corrosion. In automotive applications the vent, caps and terminals are all made from aluminum. The brass terminals are actually much better conductors of electricity and stand up to the humid environment much better. Look for electrical components that are rated SAEJ1171; this international rating means the part is safe for marine applications.
Carburetor – Diesel engines do not use a carburetor. A carburetor is a device that blends air and fuel mixture. Diesel engines are all fuel injected and are designed for ignition using compression. Automotive gasoline marine engines that use a carburetor have a strengthened body to prevent fires. Firstly, in marine rated carburetors there is an overflow dam to prevent fuel spillage. Secondly, to prevent fuel flooding issues, there is a strengthened cover over the carburetor and intake manifold. If this chamber floods with fuel it will be contained and go back into the carburetor. There is also an extra bracket to keep the fuel line securely connected to the carburetor. The throttle shifts are grooved in such a way to prevent fuel from puddling. The grooved lines will always keep fuel flowing towards the blades.
Fuel Pump – In a marine application the fuel pump is a dual diaphragm design. In automotive and industrial diesel applications the fuel pump is a single diaphragm design. The reason for the dual design is to create a fail-safe if that compartment ruptures. Especially with gasoline engines if that section fails it will pour fuel all over the bilge. In an automotive application if that diaphragm fails it will spill fuel all over the ground. A high performance marine fuel pump will also contain a bleed-off line if the diaphragm ruptures. The bleed off-line will push fuel back into the carburetor instead of the engine bilge.
Water Pump – Marine water pumps vary differently from automotive or industrial water pumps. Some water pumps are open systems and use raw seawater to cool the engine. Marine water pumps come with stamped stainless steel brackets as aluminum will rust. The majority of the body is either stainless steel or epoxy. Automobile water pumps will most times come without paint and are subject to corrosion. The internal components of the water pump are all manufactured using brass or anodized aluminum. Anodizing is an electrochemical process that converts a metal surface to a corrosion anodic oxide finish. Automotive or industrial engines will simply use a stamped steel impeller. A marine water pump will feature a brass bi-directional impeller which requires no anti-freeze.
Camshafts – Marine camshafts versus industrial camshafts have different grinds. RV and On-Road Trucks have pretty much the same grinds but marine engines have intake/exhaust valves that overlap. The camshafts usually are ground to have a high lift and shorter duration for more lower end torque at high RPMs not horsepower like many performance camshafts.
Freeze Plugs – In marine engines all of the core plugs are made of brass to prevent corrosion. Coolant passages should also be coated in corrosion resistant material.
Gaskets and Housings – Gaskets are all made with composite plastics. Head gaskets are made with stainless steel to prevent corrosion.
Intake Manifold – The intake is manufactured with dual planes, ceramic rollers and seals.
Bearings – Bearings are typically larger in marine engines to handle constant RPMs. The larger size helps stand up to wear better. Bearings are also corrosion resistant and made of stainless steel.
Pistons – Pistons in marine engines are usually geared towards higher compression. They don’t need the dish style heads. Emissions technology on older marine engines is still subjugated to EPA Tier Ratings and must have exhaust gas re-circulation (EGR), diesel particulate filters (DPF), catalytic converters and diesel exhaust fluid (DEF).
Rings – The rings on marine engines must also take into account for wet environments. The rings are manufactured out of stainless steel or chrome molybdenum.
Blocks – The engine blocks in both industrial and marine applications are generally the same. On the automotive side it is speculated that General Motors sells about 15% of its engine blocks directly to Mercruiser. There really is no difference between the blocks. If the engine blocks are used in freshwater applications there really isn’t too much additional need as far as corrosion technology goes. The sumps are sometimes built with copper or brass but is not typically standard. Marine rated blocks are sometimes all coated in anti-corrosion spray to avoid moisture. When the block does break down it turns into a powder or shale that is easily expelled via the cooling system. Automotive / Industrial Engines that breakdown can block oil and water passages. For heavy duty marine applications some engine blocks are rated stronger than their industrial counterparts to handle sustained RPMs. Specific marine rated blocks are sometimes casted with more nickel to prevent corrosion.
Overall the torque curve with marine engines is different than truck engines. With marine diesel engines they are constantly at 4,500 – 5,000 RPMs for hours on end. Truck engines only sustain high RPMs for a short period before shifting to a different gear. Marine rated engine blocks will be manufactured with the additional heat and pressure of sustained RPMs.
Cylinder Head, Rods, Crankshaft – Every part of the engine can be adapted for marine rated. Aftermarket companies will sell performance cylinder heads, connecting rods and even marine rated crankshafts. However, for most drop in diesel engines you do not need to specifically install marine rated heads, connecting rods or crankshafts.
Overall, marine and industrial strength diesel engines are not much different from a design perspective. It really boils down to the various ancillary parts that are built for corrosion or fire prevention. It is always best to check with a marine mechanic to make sure an industrial diesel engine will work with the application you have. Running the engine serial number before you purchase is crucial to getting the engine that will work for your needs.
Take a look at three new engines shipping out. We take great pride in building our own pallets, wrapping them in protective shrink wrap, supplying break-in instructions and nose loading them during transit.
The Cummins N-14 is a great engine; quite possibly the best Cummins engine ever produced. These engines are the stuff dreams are made of if you’re an old school guy looking for reliability. No doubt, the N14 is part of “1,000,000 mile club”. The engine features the best of engineering fundamentals mixed with one of the first electronic control system. First designed in the late 1980s it was sent into full production in 1991. The N14 engine is the follow up to the vastly popular Cummins 855 Big Cam which was produced 1976-1985. Cummins listened to it customers and designed a more powerful version of the 855 while maintaining a similar profile and bore/stroke architecture. Overall, the biggest structural difference between the 855 and N14 is the air-to-air cooling system changes but both engines are very similar.
The N-14 was produced until 2001 and saw many changes over its 10+ year run for Cummins. The most radical change over the 855 was the incorporation of the electronic control module (ECM). Detroit Diesel rolled out the first commercial electronic diesel engine in 1987 with its ground breaking Series 60 Engine and Cummins followed suit. With the advent of the first EPA Tier emissions regulations in 1994 the future of diesel engines was going to be electronic diagnostics. The N14 Celect was the first Cummins engine to feature an electronic injection system. The Celect fuel system produces systematic pressure throughout each injection cycle unlike the common rail fuel system of the 855, or older M11 or L10 models. Albeit the injectors are still cam actuated the ECM controls the metered flow of fuel to the injectors. In 1997 Cummins introduced the N14 Celect Plus which further fine-tuned the ECM to control many more custom parameters of the fuel system.
In addition of an ECM the N14 was designed for emissions purposes to consume much less oil. The N14 diesel was engineered in a way where oil flow is much more uniform thus requiring the engine to consume about 20%-30% less oil than the Cummins 855. Engineers at Cummins also came up with new pistons that positioned the top ring much closer to the uppermost part of the piston. This new design reduced a large open space between the ring and the piston liner. By utilizing this space the combustion chamber moved closer to the top ring which meant the oil got much hotter and burned off more completely. In addition to internal changes, engineers also developed an API CF-4 and API CG-4 oil for the N14 that was much more thermally stable and easier to breakdown on a molecular level.
For all of the great aspects of the Cummins N14 its Achilles Heel has always been the injectors. The L10, M11 and N14 all have problems with injector failures and the surrounding electronics. The fuel system’s main components consists of the injectors, injector wiring harness and the ECM. A common occurrence will happen when, for example, when the ECM shows a 111 or 343 code in an N-14 Celect Plus model. This means the ECM isn’t grounded to the injector. Usually this starts out with only 1 injector shown to be malfunctioning but can quickly spread to others. If this happens you immediately want to shut down the engine.
These early electronic engines offered no protection against the wiring harness shortening out. There are 6 injector driver connections on the ECM which are attached to the injectors via a wiring harness. If an injector goes bad it is advised to pull out the wiring from the injector and replace immediately before the faulty wire burns up the ECM motherboard. Usually if you unplug # 1, 2, 3, or 4 injector drivers in time you can save the ECM/injectors. The wiring harnesses are known to have problems and are very expensive to replace.
Another issue with the N14 ECM is a faulty fuel solenoid. The solenoid is situated on the bottom of the ECM. If the solenoid shorts it will heat up the ECM slowly and can then destroy the entire fuel solenoid circuit, memory chip and the injector timing chip. Usually the solenoid gets so hot it melts the solder on the chips. For a 50 pin connection all it takes is one pin to loosen from the heat to destroy the ECM. It is recommended that drivers carry 1-2 extra injectors in the truck in case one goes out. Usually they go out in pairs which makes sense to carry 2 at all times.
• Injectors overfill with fuel and it overfills the crankcase
• Injector O-Rings will leak
• Misfires occurring due to a clogged filter screen on top of the injector pump
• Injector cup failures allow water in the fuel
• Over revving can cause scoring on the injector plunger barrel
• Oil Coolers are prone to clogging
• Fuel lines prone to fraying allowing debris into the injector
The type of fuel and additives used with the N-14 make a world of difference. Many fleet operators use Lucas oil additives or Automatic Transmission Fluid (ATF) Liquid Moly solutions. ATF additives prevent oil loss, helps protect and regenerate seals and rings, cleans out oil sludge, improves steering performance and helps protect the engine during shifting. Most operators will put in 1 quart of ATF per 100 gallons of fuel. However it is important to note ATF Fluid is red in nature and will show up as off-road fuel at most DOT Weight Stations. You could end up with some pretty big fines if you don’t have the proper documentation. Other preventative measures with the N-14 include using an alcohol based additive to kill off algae from newer blends of fuel. The algae in these various blends tends to eat through the older OEM fuel lines. If you use winter and summer blend diesel fuels make sure to use blends from a reputable supplier instead of some discount brand as the N-14 doesn’t do well with overly chemically blended fuels; the basic stuff will do just fine.
Even though the N14 has some injector issues make no mistake the N14 is a workhorse. This diesel engine has the power to get the job done, is easy to maintain and will last a long time. It is recommended that the oil filter, fuel filter and coolant filters all be replaced every 11,500 miles. The N-14 does not do well with cheaper filters that don’t further remove particulate matter. The early Cummins ISB series engines, (5.9 L and 6.7 L) were known to ship with cheaper less efficient filters which were also used in the early N-14 engines as well. Fleetguard or Donaldson makes a fine aftermarket filter for newer replacement purposes. Other than the fuel filters it is recommended that the valves be adjusted every 125,000 miles but a major overall should not be needed for 500,000 – 1,000,000 miles.
• Displacement: 14.0 Liter
• Bore: 5.5”, 140 mm
• Stroke: 6.0”, 152 mm
• Cylinders: 6 In-Line
• Fuel System: PT
• Horsepower: 310 – 525 HP @ 2100 RPM, 360 HP @ 1800 RPM Marine
• Power Rating: 231 – 391 kW standard, 269 kW Marine
• Aspiration: Turbocharged / Waterjacket Aftercooled / Naturally Aspirated Options
• Rating Type: Continuous
• Dry Weight: 2800 lbs., 1300 kg
• Dimensions: Length 59 in, 1496 mm, Width 33 in, 854 mm, Height 51 in, 1293 mm.
• Compression Ratio: 17:1
• Injector Firing Order: 1-5-3-6-2-4
• Valve Timing: A Mark Cylinder 1-6, B Mark Cylinder 5-2, C Mark Cylinder 3-4
• Clearances: Intake Valves: 14 thousands, Exhaust Valves: 27 thousands
• Emissions Certifications: Meets NOx requirements International Maritime Organization (IMO), Maripol 73/78 Annex VI Regulation 13 and the United States Environmental Protection Agency.
This is an prime example of the dedication and craftsmanship that all of our employees show on a regular basis. We had brag a little but this is an absolutely awesome Remanufactured Caterpillar 3116 built by engine builder Ben Gunn. Nice job Ben!
Capital Reman Exchange is proud to call Colorado our home. Based in the Mile High City, we call the Capitol City of Colorado our home, but ensure it is our client’s capital equipment and trust we strive to earn each and every day. We achieve trust through hands on ownership and an employee base that is second to none in skill and training.
Our modern facilities and equipment include our full machine shop and separate engine building departments. These facilities help keep Capital Reman Exchange a cut above the competition and allows us the flexibility to work with customers who are individual owners, fleet managers or anywhere on the spectrum.
We a certified AERA (Automotive Engine Rebuilders Association) machine shop. Our team of in-house diesel experts are qualified to assist you with:
- Remanufactured Diesel Engines
- Used Diesel Engines
- Camshafts and Followers
- Cylinder Heads
- Connecting Rods
- Rocker Assemblies
- Inframe and Overhaul Kits
We believe our consultative approach to solving diesel engine problems helps to craft the perfect solution to fit your specific application. Call us today, we would love to help you with all of your heavy duty engine needs!
All OEM manufacturer’s brand name, tradename, symbols or descriptions are for internal reference only. Any statement, website content, advertisement, literature or brochure should NOT be interpreted or implied as having any direct relationship with OEM manufacturers or their respective dealer network. Under no circumstance is any engine part or engine advertised by Capital Reman Exchange, LLC affiliated with any OEM manufacturers which includes but not limited to Caterpillar®, Cummins®, Detroit Diesel®, Mack®, John Deere®, Komatsu®, Waukesha®.