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The Clean Air Act of 1970 was essentially the first major environmental safety and regulatory law in the United States. The law was enforced by the newly created Environmental Protection Agency also created the same year. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was the brainchild of increasing public concern in the 1950s and 1960s regarding the human impact on the environment. Specific incidents such as the 1969 Santa Barbara Oil Spill, the destruction of environmental preserves through the creation of the Federal Highway Interstate System and Rachel Carson’s whistleblowing ecological novel, Silent Spring brought the need for a regulatory agency to oversee environmental issues. For years congress could not come to a discernable solution that would appease both political parties. It was Senator Henry M. Jackson of Washington State that broke the stalemate when he wrote Bill 1075 which evolved into the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. This was the first of many laws regarding clean air, water and wilderness protection. It was Richard Nixon in 1970 that created the EPA under the guise of having one agency that oversaw and enforced all environmental issues.
As the role of the EPA grew in the 1980s and 1990s many new conservational concerns entered public conscience. One such pollutant was found to be diesel engines. In 1994 the major diesel manufacturers including Caterpillar, Cummins, Detroit Diesel and Mack among others collaborated to discover new ways to reduce emissions in diesel engine technology know as the ‘Tier Program’. First analyzed by the California Air Research Board in collaboration with a government study found that diesel engine emissions were a major contributor to poor air quality in the United States. It was discovered that Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen Oxide, Hydrocarbons and other particulate matter were being produced at an alarming rate by older less efficient remanufactured diesel engines. Many remanufactured diesel engines were not in compliance with the Clean Air Act. The Tier Program, first implemented in 1996, is based on gradual reductions in emissions created upon a ‘tiered approach’ over a period of 20 years. The plan is designed upon 4 tiers (1-4) according to the size and original use of the engine. The original restrictions mostly applied to over-the-road diesel vehicles but expanded in 2006 to include stationary diesel engines in machinery and generators.
The infograph below describes how the Tier Program works over the period of years starting in 1994. Beginning in 1994 to 2006 Tier 1 engine conversions solely focused on on-road and off-road diesel vehicles. Tier 2 and 3 emission reductions began in 2006 started to phase out older technology in standby remanufactured diesel engines. Prior to 2007 remanufactured diesel engines and generators were regulated by state and local laws most revolving around the number of hours an engine ran per year. Regulations were typically only imposed on prime or continuous use engines vs. small infrequent stand-by engine usage applications. Manufacturers were then forced to come up with emission reductions in all diesel engines produced that are at least Tier 2 and Tier 3 compliant beginning at the start of 2007. Previous emission regulations for diesel generator sets were handled by individual state and local authorities. Most of these regulations were based on the number of hours the diesel generator was operated in during a year. Less stringent regulations were imposed on standby diesel generators, whose usage is infrequent and typically for short periods of time, with the restrictions increasing for generators that operated more regularly as a prime power source or in times of peak energy demand.
Tier 2 and Tier 3 standards were met through in an improvement in technology in remanufactured diesel engines. Changes in diesel fuel refinement as well as how the engine is designed improved emission regulations tremendously. These improvement were first met with hesitation by diesel manufacturers but ultimately was not much of a major issue from a sales or production perspective as originally thought. Guidelines were met by reducing the amount of sulfur content in diesel fuel, installing electronic engine control units (ECUs) into the engines to regulate fuel efficiency via the injectors as well other internal modifications. The final phase (Tier 4), which is still underway, is less evasive for manufacturers and primarily focuses on after-exhaust filters and treatments that may be used to further reduce and breakdown harmful particulates. Older remanufactured diesel engines already in operation were not subjected to the Tier Program Regulations and are essentially “grandfathered in”. The good news is that many older remanufactured diesel engines can be updated with newer technology to make them more fuel efficient and less of a pollutant.
The announcement was made by the head of Daimler AG’s commercial truck operation, as being part of a plan of increasing its engines output, and accordingly selling more trucks. The company has committed to a 370-million-dollar investment for these purposes, and for building more transmissions and axles as a package as well. Daimler has already boosted its Detroit activity to produce heavy-duty automatic transmissions, which have been “a runaway success,” Wolfgang Bernhard, head of Daimler’s global commercial truck operations, told Reuters today ahead of an appearance in Detroit.
This strategy is not exactly consistent with the demand expectations for medium and heavy trucks in North America in 2016, as the projections indicate just a light increase in the segment, but still above 2014 solid levels. European demand will be standstill and Brazil will “continue to be very difficult,” Bernhard said. He also added that Daimler is not lowering its engine and transmission production, and plants will work at full capacity.
The following period is predicted to be rather difficult for the commercial vehicles makers, as the Government wants to decrease the level of emissions. In response to this new challenge, Bernhard said Daimler’s would have to develop more technologies that would bring the vehicles up to desired standards. “We can perfectly optimize those components to each other to get the best fuel economy and reliability,” he said.
Via Automotive News
The diesel market continues to grow from year to year as the need for reliable light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles increases mostly in secondary and third world countries. As infrastructure improves across the world so does the need for dependable work trucks. J.D. Power and Associates predicts that diesel sales will more than triple in the next 10 year accounting for more than 10% of all vehicle sales up from 3.6% just 10 years ago in 2005. From the year 2000 to 2005 diesel registrations increased over 80% exceeding 550,000 vehicles. From 2005 to 2015 that number further increased another 67%.
Fuel injectors are small electrical components that are used to deliver fuel via a spray directly into the intake manifold in front of the intake valve in a diesel engine. Diesel fuel injectors are quite complicated; the injector has a high micron filter on the top inlet side which corresponds to small hypodermic sized holes on the bottom for the atomizing of the diesel fuel. The diesel fuel acts as a lubricating source for the injector’s internal parts. The main source of failure for injectors is water in the fuel. When water in the fuel displaces the lubricating properties the internal parts wear down quickly and the injector as a whole can fail rather quickly.
Injectors are an extremely important engine component. The injector valve opens and closes at the same rpm as the diesel engine. Typical RPM for diesel engines in North America is around 1800. This equates to roughly 140,000 times per hour! In addition to water in the fuel, injectors are subjected to carbon and dirt particles introduced into the unit via a bad air cleaner element. The type of fuel, grade and additives used also has a significant impact on the life expectancy of the fuel injector. The ECM (Engine Control Module) controls the fuel injectors in most electrical diesel engines. The diesel injectors constantly have power when the key is turned on regardless if the engine is turned over. The ECM grounds the injector, completing the circuit and causing the injector nozzle to open. The ECM after receiving information from various control sensors determines the length of time the injectors need to be grounded to inject the exact amount of fuel given the horsepower output demand from the engine.
The process of diesel injectors opening, closing and dispensing the correct amount of fuel happens in milliseconds. Injector cycle firing is on average completed in 1.5 to 5 milliseconds. Diesel fuel injectors come in different shapes and sizes depending on the engine make and model as well as power demand. Automotive injectors are quite a bit smaller than heavy-duty diesel applications and are measured in cubic inches. There are two types of diesel fuel injectors: the first is called throttle body injection where 1-2 injectors are located in the throttle body itself in the diesel engine and supply a metered amount of mist fuel spray into the intake manifold. This delivery system essentially charges the intake and the intake valve draws the fuel into the cylinder of the engine. The second delivery system, known as individual port type fuel injector, is newer and more fuel efficient. Port type of injection is more efficient than a carburetor since it adjusts to air density and altitude and is not reliant on the manifold vacuum.
With throttle spray injection inefficiency comes when the cylinders closest to the injectors having a better mixture than the ones furthest away. With port type of injection this flaw is eliminated by injecting the same amount of fuel to each cylinder in the engine.
Each fuel injector is a little different but they all have 15 main parts including the filter, guide ring, core spring, seat spring, seat, pole piece, stop, solenoid coil, solenoid body, core ring, core, spray tip housing, director and spray tip. The fuel flow is regulated by the ECM by raising a ball off its seat. This allows fuel flow through the seat orifice and then out through a fixed director plate with several holes. The director plate serves to direct the fuel spray pattern. This type of injector has 10 to 15 degree angle spray pattern. The fuel atomization of this type of injector is similar to the disc type injector. Disc and ball type injectors by design and less susceptible to clogging.
Diesel Fuel injectors come in a variety of shapes and sizes as well as working conditions. The article posted here explains the difference between OEM, Remanufactured, Refurbished and Used Injectors. Capital Reman Exchange can help you identify which type of fuel injector is right for your diesel engine.
This sultan knows how to swing.
Mack Trucks has built its most expensive custom truck ever for Sultan Ibrahim Ismail of the Malaysian state of Johor to tow his equally extravagant speedboat.
Gold thread was used to stitch royal seals into the front seats, and the rear of the truck has been converted into a party deck, complete with BBQ, chairs and mountable umbrellas. A six-camera closed circuit television system keeps an eye on things, while a Bose stereo, Sony Playstation, and two large flat screen TVs provide entertainment.
The red, white, and blue paint job matches the Johor state flag, while a gold tiger statuette referring to the sultan’s coat of arms replaces the iconic Mack bulldog on top of the grill, which sits in front of the Super-Liner’s 16-liter 6-cylinder turbo diesel engine.
“Mack Trucks Australia sincerely thanks His Majesty, the Sultan of Johor, for kindly consenting to promote the custom-built Super-Liner with a view to Volvo Group’s future involvement and collaboration in Johor and Malaysia,” the company posted to its Facebook page.
The exact price for the truck has not revealed, but is sure to be much more than the previous $350,000 “Most Expensive Mack” record, and reports put it as high as $1 million.
Original Article Posting: http://www.foxnews.com/leisure/2015/10/21/mack-hauls-out-its-most-expensive-truck-ever/
Is bigger necessarily better? In the case of engines… Absolutely! The largest engine in the world is quite the workhorse. Wartsila-Sulzer introduced the RTA96-C Turbocharged Two-Stroke diesel engine which was installed in the Emma Maersk container ship. Giant engines like these are used in large ships of all kinds. Ship lines like Maersk prefer a combination of a single engine and single propeller vs. multiple smaller engines and propulsion systems. More engines equals more moving parts, problems for breakdowns and issues with both engines working in conjunction. The solution is one large engine.
The engine delivers 108,920 horse power directly to the propeller and weighs 2,300 tons. Just to give you an idea of how large this engine is, the cylinder bore alone is 38” and the stroke is just over 98”. It is 14 cylinders at 102 rpm and a peak torque 5,608,312 lb/ft. The engine displacement is 111,143 cubic inches.
The engine rises 44 feet above the ground and measures a full 89 feet long which is the size of a half a block. The crankshaft alone is 300 tons in gross weight! The engine uses a staggering 1,660 gallons of heavy fuel oil per hour.
Capital Reman Exchange is proud to call Colorado our home. Based in the Mile High City, we call the Capitol City of Colorado our home, but ensure it is our client’s capital equipment and trust we strive to earn each and every day. We achieve trust through hands on ownership and an employee base that is second to none in skill and training.
Our modern facilities and equipment include our full machine shop and separate engine building departments. These facilities help keep Capital Reman Exchange a cut above the competition and allows us the flexibility to work with customers who are individual owners, fleet managers or anywhere on the spectrum.
We a certified AERA (Automotive Engine Rebuilders Association) machine shop. Our team of in-house diesel experts are qualified to assist you with:
- Remanufactured Diesel Engines
- Used Diesel Engines
- Camshafts and Followers
- Cylinder Heads
- Connecting Rods
- Rocker Assemblies
- Inframe and Overhaul Kits
We believe our consultative approach to solving diesel engine problems helps to craft the perfect solution to fit your specific application. Call us today, we would love to help you with all of your heavy duty engine needs!
All OEM manufacturer’s brand name, tradename, symbols or descriptions are for internal reference only. Any statement, website content, advertisement, literature or brochure should NOT be interpreted or implied as having any direct relationship with OEM manufacturers or their respective dealer network. Under no circumstance is any engine part or engine advertised by Capital Reman Exchange, LLC affiliated with any OEM manufacturers which includes but not limited to Caterpillar®, Cummins®, Detroit Diesel®, Mack®, John Deere®, Komatsu®, Waukesha®.